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JUNE 15, 1975


White sage, scientifically known as Salvia apiana, is an aromatic herbaceous perennial plant native to the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico. It belongs to the genus Salvia within the mint family, Lamiaceae.

Botanically, white sage is characterized by its distinctive silvery-white, woolly leaves that are oblong, lance-shaped, and about 1 to 3 inches long. The leaves are densely arranged along the stems and give off a strong, earthy, and aromatic fragrance when crushed or rubbed. The plant has square stems and produces small, whitish flowers that bloom on tall spikes during the summer months. These flowers attract pollinators like bees and butterflies.

Culturally and traditionally, white sage holds significant ceremonial and medicinal importance among various indigenous cultures in the regions where it naturally grows. It is revered for its spiritual cleansing properties and is used in smudging ceremonies, where the dried leaves are burned to purify spaces, people, or objects, believed to clear negative energies and promote healing.

Medicinally, white sage has been used in traditional herbal medicine for its purported therapeutic properties. It is believed to have antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and aromatic qualities, and historically, it has been used to treat various ailments such as respiratory issues, sore throats, and as a topical application for skin conditions.

Due to its cultural significance and aromatic properties, white sage has gained popularity beyond its native habitat and is cultivated for ornamental and ceremonial purposes. However, overharvesting and unsustainable practices have led to concerns about its conservation and protection in the wild, prompting efforts to promote ethical harvesting and cultivation methods to ensure its preservation.


Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) is an evergreen aromatic herb belonging to the mint family, Lamiaceae. It's renowned for its fragrant needle-like leaves and tiny, pale-blue flowers that bloom in spring and summer. This herb typically grows as a woody shrub with dense, needle-shaped, dark green leaves that have a distinct pine-like aroma when crushed or rubbed between fingers.

The leaves of the rosemary plant are around 1 to 2 inches long, narrow, and often curled along the edges. They grow in opposite pairs on woody stems, creating a bushy appearance. Rosemary plants can vary in size from small to medium shrubs, depending on the variety and growing conditions.

The flowers of rosemary are small and two-lipped, usually pale blue or lavender in color, though some varieties may produce white, pink, or purple flowers. These blooms are clustered along the stem in whorls or small groups, adding a delicate and ornamental touch to the plant.

Rosemary is not only valued for its ornamental qualities but also for its culinary uses. Its leaves possess a strong, slightly bitter, and highly aromatic flavor, making it a popular herb in Mediterranean cuisine. Additionally, rosemary is esteemed for its medicinal properties and is used in traditional herbal remedies for its purported health benefits, such as improving digestion, enhancing memory, and providing antioxidant properties.

Overall, rosemary is a versatile and resilient herb that thrives in various climates, often cultivated in gardens or pots for both its culinary contributions and ornamental beauty.


Caraway (Carum carvi) is a biennial herbaceous plant belonging to the Apiaceae family, which also includes plants like parsley, dill, and celery. Native to Europe, Western Asia, and Northern Africa, caraway is cultivated in many regions worldwide for its seeds, which are used as a culinary spice and for their medicinal properties.

Botanically, caraway typically grows up to two feet in height and features finely divided, feathery leaves that resemble fern fronds. The leaves grow on hollow stems and give off a mild aroma when crushed. During its second year of growth, caraway produces small white or pink flowers arranged in umbrella-like clusters called umbels. These umbels contain numerous tiny flowers that later develop into the fruits, or "seeds," which are the main part used in cooking.

The seeds of the caraway plant are the most sought-after part for culinary purposes. They are oval-shaped, brownish, and have a distinct, warm, and slightly bittersweet flavor with hints of anise and fennel. Caraway seeds are commonly used as a spice to flavor various dishes, particularly in European cuisines, where they are employed in bread, cakes, soups, stews, sausages, and pickles, adding depth and aromatic complexity to recipes.

Beyond its culinary use, caraway seeds have been employed in traditional herbal medicine for their potential digestive benefits. They are believed to aid in alleviating digestive discomforts such as bloating, gas, and indigestion.

Caraway plants prefer well-drained soil and sunny conditions and are relatively easy to grow, making them suitable for cultivation in home gardens or commercial settings. The seeds are typically harvested when they ripen and turn brown, and they can be stored whole or ground for use in cooking or medicinal preparations.


Sugar kelp, scientifically known as Saccharina latissima, is a type of brown seaweed belonging to the genus Saccharina. It is a large, perennial marine algae found in cold coastal waters around the world, particularly in the North Atlantic and North Pacific oceans.

Botanically, sugar kelp is characterized by its large, broad, ribbon-like blades that can grow to lengths of several feet. These blades or leaves are typically golden-brown or olive-green in color and have a smooth, leathery texture. The blades arise from a holdfast—a structure that anchors the seaweed to rocks or other substrates on the ocean floor.

Sugar kelp is known for its rapid growth rate, particularly during the colder months when water temperatures are optimal for its development. It thrives in nutrient-rich waters and is often found in intertidal zones or shallow subtidal areas, attached to rocky surfaces or floating freely in the water column.

This species of seaweed is valued for its high content of natural sugars, which give it its common name, "sugar kelp." It contains mannitol, a sugar alcohol that contributes to its mild sweetness. Sugar kelp is also rich in various nutrients, including vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants, making it not only a valuable component of marine ecosystems but also an important resource in various industries, such as food, pharmaceuticals, and biofuels.

Cultivation of sugar kelp is practiced in aquaculture and sustainable harvesting methods, as it is considered an environmentally beneficial crop with numerous potential applications beyond its natural habitat in the ocean.


Juniper refers to various species of evergreen shrubs or small trees belonging to the genus Juniperus within the cypress family, Cupressaceae. These plants are widely distributed across the Northern Hemisphere, including North America, Europe, Asia, and parts of Africa.

Botanically, junipers are characterized by their needle-like or scale-like leaves that are typically arranged in whorls or opposite pairs along the stems. The leaves may be sharp-pointed and prickly or soft and scale-like, depending on the species. They are usually dark green or blue-green in color and emit a distinctive resinous fragrance when crushed.

Juniper plants are dioecious, meaning individual plants produce either male or female cones. The female plants produce fleshy, berry-like cones known as juniper berries. These berries start out green and eventually ripen to a blue-black color, and they contain seeds within. The berries are not true botanical berries but rather modified cones.

These aromatic juniper berries are used in various culinary applications, particularly in flavoring gin and certain foods, providing a slightly resinous and pine-like flavor. Additionally, they have been utilized in traditional medicine for their potential diuretic, antibacterial, and antioxidant properties.

In landscaping and gardening, different juniper species are cultivated for their ornamental value, used as shrubs, ground covers, or as specimen plants in gardens due to their evergreen foliage and ability to thrive in various climates and soil conditions.

Juniper plants also hold cultural and symbolic significance in different cultures. They have been used in rituals, ceremonies, and as a symbol of protection or purification in various traditions throughout history.


Angelica (Angelica archangelica) is a biennial or perennial herbaceous plant belonging to the Apiaceae family, which includes plants like carrots, parsley, and dill. Native to regions of northern Europe and Asia, angelica is cultivated for both its culinary and medicinal uses.

Botanically, angelica is a tall, robust herb that can grow up to several feet in height. It features large, bright green, serrated leaves that are divided into numerous leaflets and have a coarse texture. The plant produces clusters of small, yellowish-green or white flowers that bloom in umbrella-shaped structures called umbels. These umbels can reach several inches in diameter and attract pollinators such as bees and butterflies.

Angelica is well-known for its aromatic properties, particularly in its roots, stems, leaves, and seeds. Its scent is sweet, herbal, and slightly musky. Various parts of the angelica plant are utilized for culinary and medicinal purposes.

In culinary practices, angelica is commonly used as a flavoring agent in confectionery, desserts, and beverages. Its stems are candied or preserved to create confectionery treats, and its leaves and seeds are sometimes used as a seasoning or aromatic addition to culinary dishes, providing a unique herbal and slightly peppery flavor profile.

In traditional herbal medicine, angelica has been used for its purported medicinal properties. It is believed to possess digestive, diuretic, and expectorant qualities. Angelica has historically been utilized to ease digestive issues, stimulate appetite, and alleviate respiratory ailments such as coughs and colds.

Due to its robust growth and attractive appearance, angelica is also cultivated in gardens as an ornamental plant, adding height, texture, and fragrance to landscapes.

However, it's important to note that certain parts of the angelica plant contain compounds that may be toxic in large quantities, so caution should be exercised when using it for culinary or medicinal purposes, and it's advisable to consult with a healthcare professional before using angelica for therapeutic reasons.


Coriander, scientifically known as Coriandrum sativum, is an annual herb belonging to the Apiaceae family, which includes parsley, dill, and celery. Widely cultivated and utilized in various cuisines worldwide, coriander is valued for its leaves, known as cilantro or coriander leaves, and its seeds, commonly referred to as coriander seeds.

Botanically, coriander features delicate, lacy, fern-like leaves that grow on slender stems. The leaves have a bright green color and a distinctive aroma and taste that can be polarizing—some find it refreshing and citrusy, while others may perceive it as soapy or pungent. These leaves are an essential ingredient in many culinary dishes, particularly in Latin American, Asian, and Middle Eastern cuisines, where they are used as a fresh herb in salsas, salads, curries, and garnishes.

As the coriander plant matures, it produces small, round, and beige-colored seeds that have a unique flavor profile distinct from the leaves. Coriander seeds have a warm, citrusy, and slightly nutty taste, and they are used whole or ground as a spice in cooking. They add depth and complexity to various dishes, including soups, stews, sauces, and spice blends like curry powder.

Apart from its culinary uses, coriander has been employed in traditional medicine for its potential health benefits. It is believed to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and digestive properties, and it has been used to aid in digestion, alleviate stomach discomfort, and even as a natural remedy for skin conditions.

Coriander plants thrive in moderate climates and well-drained soil, and they can be grown in home gardens or commercially cultivated for culinary and medicinal purposes. The versatility of coriander, with both its leaves and seeds offering distinct flavors and uses, has made it a staple in kitchens around the globe for centuries.


JUNE 15, 1975

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